A Part of Russia That Wants out
People in the Volga Republic of Tatarstan are Rebuilding
a National Identity Suppressed by Czars and Soviets – and Trying to go it Alone
Burke, Justin. "A Part of Russia That Wants out." Christian Science Monitor, 3 September 1993, 6-7.
Kazan, the capital of the autonomous republic of Tatarstan, has
the look of a typically sleepy Russian provincial city.
Coated in dust, downtown Kazan is full of Czarist-era buildings
with elaborate but decaying facades. The outskirts feature drab
apartment blocks, and overlooking the city from the heights above
the Volga River is a white-walled kremlin, or fortress.
But on this very Russian foundation, Tatarstan’s leaders
are working to build a separate nation within the Russian Federation.
The Tatar green-and-white-and-red flag has already replaced the
Russian tricolor atop all government buildings.
The task is complex because Tatar leaders have essentially started
from scratch. In 1552, when Ivan the Terrible conquered Kazan, the
Tatars were considered Moscow’s most dangerous enemies. Thus,
to be sure they would never again pose a threat to his empire, Ivan
sacked the Tatar capital, burning the state archives, in attempt
to destroy the national identity.
Czars and then Soviet commissars continued the assimilation work
until the late 1980s, when perestroika reforms opened the door for
the revival of Tatar sovereignty. That effort has gained momentum
amid the Soviet Union’s collapse and ongoing political turmoil
Tatarstan is perhaps the most active of Russia’s autonomous
republics, or nominal ethnic homelands, in trying to change the
nature of the federation. No longer does the Tatar government of
President Mintimer Shaimiyev accept centralized rule from Moscow.
Instead, the republic wants control of its natural resources –
including substantial oil reserves – and only a loose association
with Moscow, involving mainly defense cooperation.
In a recent interview, top Shaimiyev aide Rafael Khakimov spoke
wistfully of the tiny European nations of San Marino and Liechtenstein
as role models for Tatarstan’s self-rule. "We have a
lot to do before we can be recognized as a sovereign state. But
we’re working for it and I think we’ll attain it,"
Many federal government officials are wary of the effort by Tatarstan
and other autonomous republics to assert their autonomy, fearing
it could spark Russia’s disintegration. But while Moscow may
oppose the sovereignty drive, intrigues in the Russian capital are
preventing federal officials from formulating an effective response.
Mr. Khakimov indicates the federal government’s instability
is fueling the autonomy efforts. But some political observers say
Tatarstan’s leaders are using the sovereignty issue to try
to establish their own little fiefdom. Olga Senatova, a Moscow-based
political scientist, says the Tatar leaders, casting themselves
as moderates, have played up the possibility of an ultra nationalist
revival to frighten federal officials into making initial autonomy
"There isn’t a great feeling of nationalism in the
Tatar leadership," Ms. Senatova says. "The Tatar Constitution,
for example, doesn’t refer to the 'Tatar people.'
Instead it’s the 'people of Tatarstan.' It’s
an important difference."
"The nationalists were always used as a scarecrow to frighten
Moscow," Senatova continues. "But now the [Tatar] government
controls everything [in Tatarstan] and there’s no need to
scare Moscow anymore."
In reviving Tatar culture, the Tatar government has kept ultra
nationalist sentiment in check, so as not to antagonize the republic’s
Kazan’s overriding concern is stability, something reflected
by the government’s cautious approach to reforms. Tatar officials
denounced Moscow’s attempt at "shock therapy,"
which stressed rapid price liberation. "We felt we must first
feed the people, then tackle reforms. A hungry people will never
accept reforms," Khahimov says.
To that end, Tatarstan has been slow to discard the vestiges of
the Soviet system, including collectivized agriculture and state-controlled
prices. But this go-slow approach has produced some good results.
For example, the republic has funneled revenue earned from its extensive
oil reserves into agriculture, helping to raise yields by about
9 percent compare with the previous harvest.
"Here there is discipline and the certainty that decisions
will be carried out. That’s not the case in Russia,"
Tatarstan’s relative economic stability is attracting foreign
investment. In July, Tatar officials signed a $1.2-billion deal
with South Korean automaker Daewoo to build a car factory in the
republic. A Daewoo consumer electronics plant is also planned in
"The question of sovereignty is really a question of economic
development," Khahimov says. Development, however, will be
a daunting task, as downtown Kazan illustrates. As in many cities
along the Volga – even those such as Kazan with a million-plus
inhabitants – a few neighborhoods here still do not have indoor
plumbing. People use outhouses and wash their clothes on the street,
utilizing had pumps.
Though cautious on reform, Tatar officials are active in regional
diplomacy, wanting to maintain interethnic harmony. The contracts
extend beyond Tatarstan’s immediate neighbors to include the
entire Volga Basin and Ural Mountain region, Tatar officials say.
There are about 5 million Tatars in the Russian Federation, but
only 1.2 million Tatars live in Tatarstan proper. Hundreds of thousands
of Tatars live surrounding areas – both in Russian regions,
such as Chelyabinsk, and in autonomous republics, including Chuvashia
Tatars comprise just under half the republic’s population.
Roughly 40 percent is Russian with the remainder comprising Bashkirs,
Chuvash, and other nationalities.
In dealing with such an ethnic polyglot, the Tatar leadership must
strike a delicate balance. They stress the Tatar culture as the
basis for the republic’s sovereignty and separation from Russia,
but have been careful to take account of other cultures.
"For all nationalities and peoples were are trying to create
conditions for national revival," says Vasil Gaifullin, Tatar
minister for popular education. There is no state-sponsored education.
As a result, the government is opening not only Tatar-language schools,
but also those with classes taught in Chuvash, Udmrt, and Bashkir.
To keep ethnic Russians happy, both Russian and Tatar have been
declared the official languages of Tatarstan. And knowledge of Tatar
is not required of ethnic Russians.
As for Tatar culture, the government is opening Tatar-language
schools and encouraging a revival of Islam along the moderate Turkish
model. Islam is a major component of Tatar culture, having spread
up the Volga to the region more than a millennium ago. Traces of
Kazan’s Islamic heritage are still visible, as several minarets
pike above the city skyline.
Tatar leaders are careful not to promote Islam as a state religion.
"It’s a personal matter," says Mr. Gaifullin.
"Constitutionally there’s a separation between church
So far, most of Tatarstan’s residents seem content. Russians
queried on Kazan’s streets say they do not feel discrimination,
while Tatars relish the gradual cultural revival. "Before,
no one would speak Tatar in public. Now young people are proud they
can converse in Tatar," says Lilia Gilmuddinova, a leader
of the Tatar Watan Society, a cultural organization.
Some nationalist groups, however, want the government to move faster
on cultural revival. "The Tatar state should be for Tatars,
while other should enjoy human right protection," says Rashad
Safin, a leader of the All-Tatar Social Center nationalist organization.
"If there are two state languages, people should be required
to speak both."
Viewing such sentiment as a threat to stability, the Tatar government
has cracked down on Center nationalists. Center leaders say they
are being persecuted because the Shaimiyev administration wants
to eliminate all opposition.
Kazan may have enjoyed initial success in establishing a new Tatar
state, but protecting those gains could prove difficult. President
Shaimiyev insists on a bilateral treaty with Russia to guarantee
Tatar sovereignty. But efforts to agree on such a pact with Moscow
have made little progress. Russian President Boris Yeltsin prefers
that the issue of sovereignty and Russia’s federal structure
be outlined in his proposed new Constitution.
Tatar officials do not trust Moscow’s assurances of constitutional
guarantees. "Everyone’s corrupt," Khahimov says
of federal officials. "They know they may be removed at any
time, so they rob as much as they can, build their own country homes,
and that’s about all."
But no matter how strained current relations with Moscow are, Khahimov
and other Tatar officials also realize Yeltsin is the Russian leader
most flexible on the autonomous republics’ sovereignty. "Yeltsin
is the most democratic leader we’ll get in Moscow,"
Showing the flag:
Officials in Tatarstan reject Moscow’s rule and are
pressing for sovereignty. The Tatar tricolor flies behind
a statue of Lenin in the capital, Kazan.
Rush hour: Like
many Russian cities, Kazan is underdeveloped. But Tatarstan’s
political stability is attracting foreign investment. Korean
automaker Daewoo is opening a factory here.
Reprinted with permission of the Christian Science